Velouté sauces are white stocks of meat, poultry, game or fish thickened with a mixture of equal quantities of butter and flour cooked to a second stage roux.
These sauces form the basis of a number of preparations for meat and poultry entrées, soups, white stews, fish and vegetable dishes, in cold and hot savory soufflés, in mousses and cold sauces, and also in the preparation of cold meat, poultry and fish dishes as a basis for cold buffet decoration.
The name of the sauce is determined by the type of white stock from which it is made, e.g. fish velouté is made from fish stock, chicken velouté from chicken stock, and veal velouté from white stock made from veal. Whatever the type of velouté, the ratio of ingredients and method of preparation is the same in all instances.
Makes: 5 liters. Cooking time: 1 hour.
450 g butter
450 g flour
5 liters white stock used hot
(1) Prepare a second stage roux with the butter and flour as in 3.3. Allow to cool.
(2) Add the hot stock to the cold roux a little at a time, mixing with a wooden spatule until all the stock has been absorbed.
(3) Simmer the sauce gently for one hour.
(4) Strain the sauce into a bain-marie pot.
(5) Place melted butter and, if desired, greaseproof paper on top to prevent a skin forming.
(6) Retain until required in a bain-marie of hot water.
This sauce may also be cooked in an oven at 170°C for one hour.
Assessment of the completed sauce:
(1) The sauce should be ivory in colour.
(2) It should be rather thick in consistency like double cream – it should be borne in mind that this is a basic sauce that will be adjusted with other ingredients.
(3) It should have a delicate flavour of the commodities from which the foundation stock was made.
(4) It is very important that this sauce has a smooth velvety texture.
Possible problems, causes and solution:
(1) Sauce lacks flavor (this may be intentional if sauce is to be used for a special dish)
— poor quality stock used.
— undercooked, continue to cook for the prescribed time.
(2) Sauce is too dark:
— poor quality or dark colored stock used;
— roux overcoloured; care must be taken during the preparation of the roux as this cannot be rectified.
— sauce overcooked; cook for the correct length of time as this cannot be remedied.
— a reduction of mushroom trimmings has been added to the stock making it dark in color; care must be taken when preparing the stock as this cannot later be rectified.
(3) Sauce is starchy and gluey in texture and has a floury flavor:
— sauce undercooked; continue to cook for the prescribed time.
— too thick; dilute with more stock and continue to cook.
(4) Sauce is lumpy:
— roux too hard (i.e. too much flour in proportion to the fat); if necessary pass the sauce through a conical strainer.
— roux has dried out; if necessary pass the sauce through a conical strainer.
— roux not cooled sufficiently before adding the hot liquid; if necessary pass the sauce through a conical strainer.
— stock not incorporated into the roux with a spatule; if necessary pass the sauce through a conical strainer.
— roux around the edges of the pan not incorporated into the stock; if necessary pass the sauce through a conical strainer.
— stock added to the roux too fast; if necessary pass the sauce through a conical strainer.