Foundation sauces; base liquid, thickening agent and cooking time

Following table gives the basic sauces which are used in the production of many other sauces and extensions. Unless used as sauces in their own right these foundation sauces are not seasoned as the extraction of salts from other ingredients such as bones could result in an over-salty product.

Sauce Liquid Thickening Agent Cooking Time
Béchamel milk first stage roux 20 mins
Velouté white stock second stage roux 1 hour
Espagnole brown stock third stage roux 6-8 hours
Jus lié brown stock cornflour or arrowroot 2 hours
Demi-glace brown stock third stage roux 1 hour
Tomato sauce white stock second stage roux 1 hour
Béarnaise melted butter egg yolks 30 mins
Hollandaise melted butter egg yolks 30 mins
Mayonnaise oil egg yolks 20 mins

A large number of sauces can be produced from these foundation sauces, but in order to achieve a good quality derivative a great deal of attention needs to be given to the making of the basic item.

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